Inasmuch as a Windows partition that wouldn’t boot frustrated and inconvenienced me for nearly a week, and the solution, when I found it, took only a couple of minutes, I’m writing it up here.
The symptom when trying to boot into Windows was a black-and-white screen of death containing:
File: \Boot\BCD Status: 0xc0000034 Info: The Windows Boot Configuration Data file is missing required information
The official Microsoft advice at http://support.microsoft.com/kb/927391/en-us didn’t help. What did work was the second option, “Manually Repairing the Windows Bootloader”, from http://neosmart.net/wiki/display/EBCD/Recovering+the+Windows+Bootloader+from+the+DVD:
attrib -h -s C:\boot\BCD del C:\boot\BCD bootrec.exe /rebuildbcd
Happily, I didn’t need to do the third, “Nuclear Holocaust” option from that page.